Complete Dyeing process of cotton

Complete Dyeing process of cotton

Complete Dyeing process of 100% cotton fabric
Cotton is most popular natural fiber around the world. The original way of wet processing is most important. Follow chart is part and parcel in textile industry. This is ideal follow chart for cotton dyeing which is help somebody to know about cotton fabric or yarn dying.

Complete Dyeing process of cotton

Complete Dyeing process of cotton

I’m describing the complete dyeing process of 100% cotton fabric by the following process flowchart:
Fill water

Load fabric

Temperature control 600 C

Inject detergent + Sequestering agent + Anti-creasing agent

Run time 10 minute

Caustic dosing 600C X 10’

Increase temperature at 700C

H2 O2 dosing

Run time 110 0 C X 40’

Cooling at 800 C

Rinse at 60 0C for 7 minute

Water drain

Fill water and inject PKK

Temperature 980 C and run time 10’

Cooling at 800 C

Rinse at 50 0C for 7 minute

Water drain

Fill water

Inject acetic acid at 550 C X 10’ and check p H

Raise temperature at 800 C X 10’ and destroy enzyme activity

Rinse for 5 minutes

Water drain

Fill water

Check p H

Temperature 600 C

Inject leveling + sequestering agent run time 5’

Inject salt 600 C X 20’

Color dosing 60 0C X 33’

Run time 20 minute

Soda ash dosing for 33’

Check sample after 10, 33.…… during shade matching

Rinse at 50 0C for 15’


Fill water

For neutralizing, inject A. acid

Run time 10 minute then rinse for 10 minute


Fill water


A. Acid 55 0C X 10’

Check PH

Inject softener

Run time 500C X 20’



Fill water

Cold wash

Unload from machine

Acknowledgement for reader who is must be textile student or expert on textile technology. If you missed something on this flowchart and if you have any objection about anything please leave a comment on comment box are given blew.

Top 10 cotton producer country in the world

Map- Top 10 cotton producer country in the world

Description of Cotton:

Cotton is the most popular fiber in the natural fiber. This is maximum usage fiber around the world because this cotton is not harmful for body and this is most comfort in low price. Cotton fabric is so friendly with skin and environment.

Map- Top 10 cotton producer country in the world

Map- Top 10 cotton producer country in the world

Impurities in Cotton fiber:

Cotton is a uni-cellulose fiber. Cellulose is the use able and main part of the cotton fiber. 94% cellulose and 6% impurities are made a natural cotton fiber. The name and the percentage of impurities are given blew. It’s could be less of high.

Protein                         1.3%

Pectin’s                       1.2%

Oil, Fat, Wax              0.6%

Mineral Matters           1.3%

Ash                              0.5%

Others                         1.1%


Total Impurities           06%

Cellulose                     94%


Total:                          100%

Top ten cotton producers country in the world:

China comes first on the list of top ten cotton producer country around the world. China provide maximum amount of cotton. More than 33% cotton comes from china. Not only cotton producer but also china is remarkable country in the world every sector which helps the country change a little. Another country also cultivates the cotton fiber like India, U.S.A. Pakistan Brazil etc. all the country also mention on the list of top ten cotton produce country in the world.

Statistic- Top 10 cotton producer country in the world

Statistic- Top 10 cotton producer country in the world

Percentage of cotton produce by countries are given blew.

China                           33.00

India                            27.0

U.S.A                          18.0

Pakistan                      10.30

Brazil                           9.30

Uzbekistan                  4.60

Australia                      4.20

Turkey                         2.80

Turkmenistan              1.60

Greece                         1.40

To know more about cotton fiber please follow the link are given.

Percentage of impurities in different natural fiber

Classification Of Textile Fiber.

Description of Flax Fiber

Retting of flax fiber

Retting of flax fiber

The flax fibers are held together in the stems by woody matters and cellular tissue and Retting is a fermentation process that frees the fibers from these materials. Retting may be carried out in one of several ways.

Retting of flax fiber

Retting of flax fiber

1. Dam Retting :
The flax plants after pulling are tied up in sheaves or beats and immersed for about ten days in water in special am or ponds dug in the ground. This method is commonly used in Ireland.

2. Dew Retting :
The crop is spread in the ground after pulling and left for several weeks wetting by dew and rain encourages fermenting by moulds to take place. Dew Retting tends to yield dark colored fibers. It may be used in regions where water is in short supply. It is commonly practiced in Russia and France.

3. Tank Retting :
After harvesting, the seed bolls are stripped from the steam by reciprocating metal cobs. The de-seeded flax tied in bundle in packed in to concrete tank which are filled with water artificially heated to about 30°C Retting is completed in about three days some of the best and uniform fiber is produced by this process.

4. Chemical Retting :
Retting can also be carried out by treating the flax straw with chemical solution such reagents are caustic soda (NaOH), Sodium carbonate (Na2Co3), Soaps and dilute mineral acids. Its more costly process than biologic Retting and the fiber produced is not better.

Flax fiber Breaking and Scutching:
After Retting the next stage is breaking. The straw (flax) is passed between flutted roller in a breaking machine, so that the woody core broken in to fragments without damaging the fiber running through the stem the broken straw is then subjected to the proc known as “Scutching” which separates the un want woody material from the fiber. This is done beating the straw with blunt wooden or metal blades, either by hand or by machine. The woody matter is removed as shiver which is usually burnt as fuel, leaving the flax in the form of long strands formed of bundles of individual fibers adhering to one another.


After Scutching the fibers are usual combed or hackled by drawing them through sets of pin, each successive set being finer than the previous one. After hackling we get finer as well as coarse fibers, the long fibers are known as line (More than 10 Inch) and the shorter fiber are called tow (Less than 10 inch) Read more about Properties of Flax fiber

Properties of Flax fibers

Properties of Flax fibers

Properties of Flax fibers: flax is a natural fiber and this fiber is used to make most of the expensive cloth which is most comfort to wear. Flax also so much popular for the comfortableness and softness. lets have a discussion about properties of flax fiber. please follow the link to read more about flax fiber. Read more

Properties of Flax fibers

Properties of Flax fibers

Physical properties:
1. Length: The average length of fiber various from 90-125 cm. length of individual fiber cells are 6-65 mm (¼ inch – 2 ½ inch) and mean diameter of about 0.02mm (1/1200 inch).
2. Color: Brownish, light, ivory, grey.
3. Tensile/Strength: it is stronger than cotton fiber. Tenacity varies from 6.5 to 8 gm/denier
4. Elongation: The elongation at break is approximately 1.8% (dry) & 2.2 (Wet).
5. Bending properties: it has a high degree of rigidity and resists bending.
6. Specific gravity: 1.54
7. Effect of moisture: M.R%=12% (std)
8. Effect of heat: Highly resistant to decomposition up to about 120° C the fibers begin to discolor. Sp. Heat is 0.322. It is good conductor of heat. So linen sheet are so cold in summer season.
9. Resiliency: Low
10. Abrasion resistance: Moderate
11. Dimensional stability: Good but easily tend to crease.

Chemical properties:
1. Bleaching action: Flax (Linen) is made difficult to bleach than cotton for its huge amount of impurities, like pectin and gum.
2. Effect Acids: Flax will withstand in weak acids but is attacked by hot dilute acids or cold concentrated acids.
3. Effect of alkali: Flax has good resistance o alkaline solution for large amount of gum and waxes.
4. Effect of organic solvents: Resistant of common solvents (Acetone, ether, methyl, alcohol, Chloroform Etc.)
5. Effect of insects: Flax is not attacked by moth, grut or other insects.
6. Effect of micro-orgasms: flax has height resistance to rotting under severe. Conditions of warmth, damp and contamination how ever mildews may attack the cellulose of flax but resistance is generally high particularly if the yarn on fabric is dry.
7. Dye ability: not good affinity to dyes. Direct and vat dyes are suitable for flax fiber.

Chemical composition of flax

                                                Raw Flax%       Ratted Flax%

Cellulose                                        56.5                  64.1
Hemi-cellulose                               15.4                  16.7
Pectin                                             3.8                    1.8
Lignin                                            2.5                   2.0
Fat & wax                                       1.3                     1.5
Water soluble                                10.5                  3.9
Moisture regain (Water)                 10.0                 10.0

Total = 100%    Total = 100%

Use of flax fiber

Flax products have been used as sail and tent canvas, fishing lines, fishing nets, book binder’s thread, and leather working threads, sewing thread, suture thread, carpet warp and union cloth cotton & flax blended at weaving stag. Flax are also used to produce clothing, household, industrial and furnishing fabric only the best portion of seed flax can be use for wool-pile rugs backing, twine and rope. The linen fiber are extensively used in fine table damasks, handkerchiefs and sheer linen fabrics, linen and Dacron blends make excellent wash and wear fabric for dresses and sports wear.
Another secretes are waste flax fibers are make in to high grade bank notes, writing papers cigarette papers. The linen makes from flax fiber is an excellent conductor of heat. Linen sheet are cold and linen garments are comfortable in hot weather.

Wet processing flow chart for cotton.

wet processing flow chart for Cotton
wet processing flow chart for Cotton

wet processing flow chart for Cotton

The main aim of wet processing is take a gray cloth and make them finished fabric as it can make garments by take them into too many wet processing technique. Wet processing process makes a fabric more useable, more fineness, and more attractive to the consumer. Wet processing is a two single word but means one think but if it describes, and then it will be a vast process. Wet process is a process which starts with a process and gets the end by step by step process. One uncompleted process can ruin the next process so each process is equally important.

Wet processing is so much important specially for natural fiber! cotton is one of them. wet processing is a step to take for make a fiber appropriate to make it yearn. cotton fiber’s has impurities and its contain the unusable material into the yearn so that its resist to use those fiber. sometime wet processing makes the cotton more smooth and usable. maximum count of yearn also depend on good quality wet processing. Cotton is on of them who is listed in the high valuable natural fiber so extra take care of cotton is important. Let’s have a look on the flow chart of cotton.

Wet processing flow chart for cotton are given blew:

Inspection of gray cloth



Shearing Or cropping










Long cloth white finishing






Bathing in roller



Folding Or rolling



I mention the follow chart on this article best of my knowledge by searching on the web. if i missed something to mention on this article please let me know by leave a comment on the comment box are given blew the article.

What is carding and classification of carding machine?

This article is about What is carding and classification of carding machine? Trash and impurities full fiber is not able to proper spinning to build the basic construction of yearn. So it’s should be remove by different process, which is include in blow-room one process after another process. Removing Trash is process is started from first line of blow room and the second step of Trash removing process are called carding process. Carding process is one of them, which are played the vital role to remove maximum of trash from fiber. To make yearn it’s important to make a sliver after removing trash.

The basic fundamental of carding machine is removing trash and make long sliver to build the basic construction of spinning yearn.



Objects of carding machine

  • Take the lap from blow room and make it small unit and make them align.
  • After blow room process, make sure the fiber is full free of dust, short fiber, break seed and unnecessary things.
  • Extra and unnecessary short and hairy fiber completely removed from sliver.
  • Made by the Immature fiber is called napes are make free by carding process.
  • Fiber could be blending and mixing if necessary by this process.
  • Make the fiber prepared for next process by make them equal and same distance among every fiber.



Different types of carding machine:

  • Roller and clearer card
  • Stationary flat card
  • Revolving flat card




In the era of modern science the carding machine also discovered new and easy to use by depend on setting and setup the cylinder and take in. Out modern carding machine gives us extra care about the fiber and make them more smooth and useable. The another different design and style carding machines are

  • Dual carding machine
  • Mono or single carding machine
  • Tandom carding machine
  • Schubert & sulzer super carding machine



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