Top 10 cotton producer country in the world

Map- Top 10 cotton producer country in the world

Description of Cotton:

Cotton is the most popular fiber in the natural fiber. This is maximum usage fiber around the world because this cotton is not harmful for body and this is most comfort in low price. Cotton fabric is so friendly with skin and environment.

Map- Top 10 cotton producer country in the world

Map- Top 10 cotton producer country in the world

Impurities in Cotton fiber:

Cotton is a uni-cellulose fiber. Cellulose is the use able and main part of the cotton fiber. 94% cellulose and 6% impurities are made a natural cotton fiber. The name and the percentage of impurities are given blew. It’s could be less of high.

Protein                         1.3%

Pectin’s                       1.2%

Oil, Fat, Wax              0.6%

Mineral Matters           1.3%

Ash                              0.5%

Others                         1.1%


Total Impurities           06%

Cellulose                     94%


Total:                          100%

Top ten cotton producers country in the world:

China comes first on the list of top ten cotton producer country around the world. China provide maximum amount of cotton. More than 33% cotton comes from china. Not only cotton producer but also china is remarkable country in the world every sector which helps the country change a little. Another country also cultivates the cotton fiber like India, U.S.A. Pakistan Brazil etc. all the country also mention on the list of top ten cotton produce country in the world.

Statistic- Top 10 cotton producer country in the world

Statistic- Top 10 cotton producer country in the world

Percentage of cotton produce by countries are given blew.

China                           33.00

India                            27.0

U.S.A                          18.0

Pakistan                      10.30

Brazil                           9.30

Uzbekistan                  4.60

Australia                      4.20

Turkey                         2.80

Turkmenistan              1.60

Greece                         1.40

To know more about cotton fiber please follow the link are given.

Percentage of impurities in different natural fiber

Classification Of Textile Fiber.

Description of Flax Fiber

Retting of flax fiber

Retting of flax fiber

The flax fibers are held together in the stems by woody matters and cellular tissue and Retting is a fermentation process that frees the fibers from these materials. Retting may be carried out in one of several ways.

Retting of flax fiber

Retting of flax fiber

1. Dam Retting :
The flax plants after pulling are tied up in sheaves or beats and immersed for about ten days in water in special am or ponds dug in the ground. This method is commonly used in Ireland.

2. Dew Retting :
The crop is spread in the ground after pulling and left for several weeks wetting by dew and rain encourages fermenting by moulds to take place. Dew Retting tends to yield dark colored fibers. It may be used in regions where water is in short supply. It is commonly practiced in Russia and France.

3. Tank Retting :
After harvesting, the seed bolls are stripped from the steam by reciprocating metal cobs. The de-seeded flax tied in bundle in packed in to concrete tank which are filled with water artificially heated to about 30°C Retting is completed in about three days some of the best and uniform fiber is produced by this process.

4. Chemical Retting :
Retting can also be carried out by treating the flax straw with chemical solution such reagents are caustic soda (NaOH), Sodium carbonate (Na2Co3), Soaps and dilute mineral acids. Its more costly process than biologic Retting and the fiber produced is not better.

Flax fiber Breaking and Scutching:
After Retting the next stage is breaking. The straw (flax) is passed between flutted roller in a breaking machine, so that the woody core broken in to fragments without damaging the fiber running through the stem the broken straw is then subjected to the proc known as “Scutching” which separates the un want woody material from the fiber. This is done beating the straw with blunt wooden or metal blades, either by hand or by machine. The woody matter is removed as shiver which is usually burnt as fuel, leaving the flax in the form of long strands formed of bundles of individual fibers adhering to one another.


After Scutching the fibers are usual combed or hackled by drawing them through sets of pin, each successive set being finer than the previous one. After hackling we get finer as well as coarse fibers, the long fibers are known as line (More than 10 Inch) and the shorter fiber are called tow (Less than 10 inch) Read more about Properties of Flax fiber

Properties of Flax fibers

Properties of Flax fibers

Properties of Flax fibers: flax is a natural fiber and this fiber is used to make most of the expensive cloth which is most comfort to wear. Flax also so much popular for the comfortableness and softness. lets have a discussion about properties of flax fiber. please follow the link to read more about flax fiber. Read more

Properties of Flax fibers

Properties of Flax fibers

Physical properties:
1. Length: The average length of fiber various from 90-125 cm. length of individual fiber cells are 6-65 mm (¼ inch – 2 ½ inch) and mean diameter of about 0.02mm (1/1200 inch).
2. Color: Brownish, light, ivory, grey.
3. Tensile/Strength: it is stronger than cotton fiber. Tenacity varies from 6.5 to 8 gm/denier
4. Elongation: The elongation at break is approximately 1.8% (dry) & 2.2 (Wet).
5. Bending properties: it has a high degree of rigidity and resists bending.
6. Specific gravity: 1.54
7. Effect of moisture: M.R%=12% (std)
8. Effect of heat: Highly resistant to decomposition up to about 120° C the fibers begin to discolor. Sp. Heat is 0.322. It is good conductor of heat. So linen sheet are so cold in summer season.
9. Resiliency: Low
10. Abrasion resistance: Moderate
11. Dimensional stability: Good but easily tend to crease.

Chemical properties:
1. Bleaching action: Flax (Linen) is made difficult to bleach than cotton for its huge amount of impurities, like pectin and gum.
2. Effect Acids: Flax will withstand in weak acids but is attacked by hot dilute acids or cold concentrated acids.
3. Effect of alkali: Flax has good resistance o alkaline solution for large amount of gum and waxes.
4. Effect of organic solvents: Resistant of common solvents (Acetone, ether, methyl, alcohol, Chloroform Etc.)
5. Effect of insects: Flax is not attacked by moth, grut or other insects.
6. Effect of micro-orgasms: flax has height resistance to rotting under severe. Conditions of warmth, damp and contamination how ever mildews may attack the cellulose of flax but resistance is generally high particularly if the yarn on fabric is dry.
7. Dye ability: not good affinity to dyes. Direct and vat dyes are suitable for flax fiber.

Chemical composition of flax

                                                Raw Flax%       Ratted Flax%

Cellulose                                        56.5                  64.1
Hemi-cellulose                               15.4                  16.7
Pectin                                             3.8                    1.8
Lignin                                            2.5                   2.0
Fat & wax                                       1.3                     1.5
Water soluble                                10.5                  3.9
Moisture regain (Water)                 10.0                 10.0

Total = 100%    Total = 100%

Use of flax fiber

Flax products have been used as sail and tent canvas, fishing lines, fishing nets, book binder’s thread, and leather working threads, sewing thread, suture thread, carpet warp and union cloth cotton & flax blended at weaving stag. Flax are also used to produce clothing, household, industrial and furnishing fabric only the best portion of seed flax can be use for wool-pile rugs backing, twine and rope. The linen fiber are extensively used in fine table damasks, handkerchiefs and sheer linen fabrics, linen and Dacron blends make excellent wash and wear fabric for dresses and sports wear.
Another secretes are waste flax fibers are make in to high grade bank notes, writing papers cigarette papers. The linen makes from flax fiber is an excellent conductor of heat. Linen sheet are cold and linen garments are comfortable in hot weather.

Description of Flax Fiber

flax fiber cultivation field

flax fiber cultivation field


Flax is a bast fiber which is cultivated in cold and humid condition. Flax fiber is obtained from the stalk of the flax plant. Flax fiber is botanically known as “Linum usitatissimum”. It is also known as linen fiber. Linen fiber is relatively smooth, straight and lustrous, linen fiber is more brittle and less flexible than cotton. It is more difficult to prepare and spin into yarn. Linen yearn can be very strong and lustrous. It is used from appeared home furnishing.

Flax fiber production country’s are:

  • North Ireland
  • Egypt
  • Japan
  • Argentina
  • Brazil
  • U.S.A
  • France
  • Australia
  • Canada
  • New Zealand
  • Switzerland
  • Scotland
  • England
  • Russia
  • Italy
  • Belgium

Flax Cultivation:
The flax plant from which the fiber is extracted grows in moist and cold condition. The plant grows up to 170 cm in height and 1.5cm dia. The fibers grow around the stem of the tree. The stem consists several layers of these fiber connected together and can not be easily separated. When the tree becomes matured by changing its color from green from yellow, it is sheared for the extraction of the fiber. After shearing the plant are allowed to lie in open field for a week or so when all the leaves and branches comes out of the tree. After this the plants are bundle up and carried over to a place where they are hackled.

[The amount of flax production is ¼ of jute fiber]

Flow chart for Flax fiber production:

Land preparation

Seed Sown

Plant grow

Thinning and weeding







 Flax cultivation is a little difficult because this fiber grow in cold weather country. without cold weather this fiber is not able to cultivation. Because of the cultivation condition this fiber is expensive then other natural fiber.

Read more about Description of flax Fiber & Properties of flax fiber