Membrane seperation for effluent & discussion

membrane seperation for effluent & discussion

Wastewater includes an oversized sort of dyestuffs and chemical addition that create environmental challenge. Principally effluent come back from colouring and finishing processes. That need the input of a good vary of chemicals and dyestuffs. That usually area unit organic compounds.

Wastewater contains high suspended solids, colloids, dissolved salt and organic matters. Therefore effluent ought to be treated. The aim of effluent treatment is to get rid of those suspended solids et al. Organic compounds as attainable before combination in water .There area unit several method that area unit wont to treat the effluent. Membrane separation method is one in all them.


Treating effluent of a pilot plant reproducing on a smaller scale a separation system supported ultrafiltration and reverse diffusion. (The method that use a partly leaky membrane to get rid of ions, unwanted molecules and bigger particles from potable in referred to as reverse osmosis)

In this technique, Effluent from coloring Associate in Nursing finishing plant once activated sludge oxidization. A microorganism biomass suspension is liable for the removal of pollutants) was treated at Associate in Nursing 800 l/h by suggests that of sand filtation followed by a separation in an radical filtration membrane module that is employed to get rid of all mixture particles (0.01 to 1.0 microns) from water and typically it removes the biggest dissolved contaminants.

Last Step for effluent sepration

Last separation step. Reverse diffusion (a pressure that push water through semi-permeable membrane and take away contaminants) eight bar pressure. Created a permeate (60% of the recess flow) that hoping on the analytical screening performed . Produced permeate will be reused all told production steps. A preliminary analysis of investment and operational prices conjointly gave encouraging indications of the economic feasibleness.

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Another method that is additionally common is thought as Vapor permeation. It suggests that the transport of matter through a membrane from a vapor feed mixture to a vapor permeate. In essence, porous and/or nonporous membranes will be wont to separate vapor and gas mixtures. It works counting on the molecular size and form of their constituents. Non porous membranes area unit commonly used and in this case vapor permeation is closely associated with concentration.

3D Printing In Fashion Garment Industry: What To Look Forward

3d Printing In Fashion Garment Industry: What To Look Forward

3D printing has started making its way into the fashion apparel industry. A number of designers are making use of the additive manufacturing technology to produce one-off complex designs; 3D printing services dedicated to fashion and design are emerging in the market. Fashion schools are adapting their programs, incorporating laser-cutting and 3D printing. Annual hi-tech fashion weeks are popping up around the globe

Such technology refers to the layer by layer. Creation of physical objects based on digital 3D files. Which described as having the power to disrupt and transform the manufacturing system as we know it. 3D printing transforms the design and development process by expanding spheres of possibilities, enhancing design quality and limiting development costs. It also incurs great consequences for manufacturing as it reduces transaction costs, resolves the scale-scope problem and fosters zero-waste production.


In recent years, the fashion industry has shown growing interest in 3D printing technologies and its affiliated 3D designing software. Traditionally the business and engineering communities have formed the foundation for research on the issue of 3D printing. And have provided the theoretical and empirical framework through which to analyze the adoption and impacts of 3D printing on the industrial sector.

The first 3D printer was introduced in 1986 by Chuck Hall. 3D printers manufacturers have been large R & D based organizations (De Jong et al, 2012) which were able to afford high prices and required premium products. However, with the patents for these technologies beginning to expire a number of firms, most of which were start-ups began entering the market, with a concentration on the lower end of the market. 

Transformative Effects of 3D printing:

3D printing also brings about many advantages in terms of manufacturing and supply chain management. It promotes customization to new design alternatives that can be created without the need for investments in setup, tooling or machine changeovers. As such, the marginal cost of reproduction is close to zero thus resolving the scale-scope dilemma imposed by traditional manufacturing technologies. Products are producing and sold efficiently in small batches (Michalik et al, 2015). As a result, 3D printing also limits concerns relative to stock. Inventories become obsolete when it becomes possible to produce according to make-to-order processes (Weller and al, 2015). Finally, 3D printing enables localized production. With 3D technologies, design and manufacturing can happen anywhere thus reducing transaction costs.

Innovation in the Creative Industries:

In order to assess the possible impact of 3D printing in terms of fashion. It is crucial to turn to the existing literature on the role of innovation in the creative industrie. as well as a past example of adoptions of digital innovations in this particular sector.

If style and continuous style change is central to the fashion industry, researchers have

pointed out the crucial role of innovation in the contemporary fashion market. They have numerous technological and digital innovations introduced in the fashion industry (Unay and Zehir, 2012). Such as; a computer-aided-design or the development of certain fabrics and fibers. These new technologies have stimulated product innovation and led to transformations in terms of speed and quality of manufacturing.

Fashion Designers

The main focus of the sample was to identify designers researching, creating or producing 3D printed garments. The population of designers making use of 3D printing for garments is extremely small. Thus, explaining the size of the available sample. Despite this, the criterion is applied in order to select a sample. All designers conducted projects where 3D printing and was used to produce wearable garments or fabrics. 

Designers solely using 3D prototype technology which has excluded from the analysis. This limited the analysis to independent designers and micro fashion firms. This sample is select using the snowball sampling method whereby relationships and communication with initially targeted participants brought about contact possibilities with other potential respondents. 

Reliability, Validity, and Limitations:

The methodology used in this study presents certain limitations, notably interviewing. Indeed, The use of interviews leaves room for a number of limitations notably the risk of subjectivity. The difficulty to replicate the study, the problem of generalization and the risk of lack of transparency. There’s been general uneasiness for the application reliability and validity in qualitative research. The quality of the study will be guaranteed according to the alternative indicators of quality

Brief discussion of auto marker & making process

Brief discussion of auto marker & making process

Let’s get back to the initial time of cutting department of garments industries there is no facility like auto marker. All the time in bulk cutting they used marker, however; how did they make it? In that case; can you say that in a single sentence? Well let me tell you, they make it manually placing one pattern by by one. Marker is most important element to complete the bulk cutting.

Now question is what is marker in detail ?

Marker is sheet of paper. where every parts of garments are plotted as per layer or cutting plan. Always the marker man makes marker by breakdown a ratio from PO quantity. As per company working policy; this ration also can be provided by cutting planer. Marker maker input the ratio into marker making software to make desire marker for production.

This is the package of garments parts, which let us to enhance the cutting production with limited period of time.

How did they make manual marker?

Question Is little weird, isn’t it? How did they ? Because the manual marker making isn’t used in large production. This is very long process and it’s efficiency isn’t good as in computerized methods.

The maker man makes marker by placing one pattern by one. If maker Missed something he/she need to erase drawn marker and do that again. This is very complicated process & unable to change anything after finish the marker. It’s required much more time and manpower than computerized method.

What is Computerized method?

As I mention earlier, it’s easiest way to place the Patten one by one and check how much efficiency we are achieving n. On the other hand, if we change any placement and see much eefficiency increased or decreased. This is helps a lot the marker man to achieve desire efficiency goal.

Auto marker.

Technology improving rapidly and it’s adding new features everyday to progress CAD and CAM technology. Auto marker is one of them. It’s doesn’t take long time to make any marker. Within two minutes it can be possible to make any marker. which is at least 10 minutes work for a marker man. Almost every top ranking recognizes software company are providing such auto marker facilities with its main software by adding some extra charges.

How it’s work?

As simple as like convert a video files from .avi to .mkv . Just open the software, input the marker, set your desire time, setting and go for process. Done!

Point should be noted. “that the file type doesn’t change at all”. File type remain same. to reduce Fabric wastage all the pieces must placed perfectly

You can also send new created and unplaced marker to nesting directly from your working folder. Using “send to option” as like we send some file to flash drive from computer.
So simple!

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Abbreviation used in this article

PO– products order
CAD– computer aided design
CAM– computer aided manufacturing