Fabric Choices in Fashion: Balancing Ecology and Economy

Discuss of garment costing

The fashion industry’s choice of fabric has far-reaching implications for both the environment and the economy. The materials selected influence everything from production processes to consumer behavior. Here, we delve into various types of fabrics, their environmental impact, and their economic significance.

Natural Fabrics:

  1. Cotton:
  • Description: Cotton is breathable and versatile, making it a popular choice for clothing.
  • Environmental Impact: Conventional cotton farming often involves significant pesticide use and water consumption, contributing to environmental degradation.
  • Economic Significance: Cotton production is a major industry, providing employment and contributing to the economies of many countries.
  1. Linen:
  • Description: Linen is derived from the flax plant, offering a lightweight and breathable fabric.
  • Environmental Impact: Flax cultivation requires fewer pesticides and less water compared to cotton.
  • Economic Significance: Linen production supports livelihoods in regions with suitable climates for flax cultivation.
  1. Wool:
  • Description: Wool, sourced from sheep. It is known for its warmth and insulation properties.
  • Environmental Impact: While natural, wool production can have environmental concerns related to land use and methane emissions from sheep.
  • Economic Significance: Wool is crucial to the economies of countries with significant sheep farming industries.

Semi-Synthetic Fabrics:

  1. Rayon:
  • Description: Rayon, derived from wood pulp, has a soft feel and is used in various applications.
  • Environmental Impact: Production involves chemicals, and deforestation for wood pulp extraction can be a concern.
  • Economic Significance: Rayon provides economic opportunities in both developed and developing nations where production occurs.
  1. Tencel (Lyocell):
  • Description: Tencel is a type of rayon known for its sustainable production process using eucalyptus wood.
  • Environmental Impact: Tencel is often considered more eco-friendly due to its closed-loop manufacturing process.
  • Economic Significance: Tencel’s popularity is rising, creating economic opportunities in the textile industry.

Synthetic Fabrics:

  1. Polyester:
  • Description: Its durability and versatility defined Polyester is a synthetic fabric.
  • Environmental Impact: Production involves energy-intensive processes, and polyester is not biodegradable.
  • Economic Significance: Polyester dominates the textile market due to its affordability and versatility.
  1. Nylon:
  • Description: Nylon is a synthetic polymer used in various fabrics, known for its strength and elasticity.
  • Environmental Impact: Nylon production involves significant energy consumption and the use of non-renewable resources.
  • Economic Significance: Nylon’s durability makes it a preferred choice for various applications, contributing to economic growth.

Environmental Impact:

  • Sustainable Practices: The fashion industry is increasingly adopting sustainable practices, such as organic farming, recycling, and eco-friendly manufacturing processes, to minimize environmental harm.
  • Circular Economy: Embracing a circular economy by promoting recycling, upcycling, and responsible disposal practices can mitigate the negative impact of textile waste on the environment.

Economic Significance:

  • Global Supply Chains: The fashion industry’s global supply chains involve various countries, contributing significantly to their economies. Textile production, garment manufacturing, and retail create jobs and stimulate economic growth.
  • Shift towards Sustainable Fashion: As consumers demand more sustainable options, there is a growing market for eco-friendly fabrics. This shift can create new economic opportunities for businesses adopting environmentally conscious practices.

Top ten country by cotton Exporting

Top ten country by exporting cotton

Cotton is a natural fiber which able to makes most comfortable and beloved of all cloth in efficient budget. This is the most popular natural fiber across the world because of its chemical and natural properties. Cotton takes an important role in textile industry to fill the necessity of natural fiber. All that textile production country does not have the ability to grow cotton in own country because of sufficient land, fertilization, climates and government approval. Pick a country like Bangladesh; it’s able to cultivate cotton in their inland but cotton takes a little long to grow and mature; in that time Bangladeshi farmer can grow more crops than cotton which helps them to survive and feed the nation.

Top ten country by exporting cotton

Top ten country by exporting cotton

In that case some people export their cotton after complete the demand of domestic industry. Various countries grow cotton which not only fulfills domestic needs but also boosting up the overall economical health of the country by exporting cotton across the world.

Global cotton export estimate amount was $54.3billion in 2015. Here are given blew the top ten list of the country which add a fair amount of money on annual growth of economy. This statistic is taken from recent global market export and import statistic report.

List of top ten country by exporting cotton:

S/N Country Worth of shipment in (USD) Percentage of total exports
01 China $15.8 billion 29.1%
02 India $7.5 billion 13.8%
03 United States $5.9 billion 10.8%
04 Pakistan $3.1 billion 5.7%
05 Hong Kong $2.3 billion 4.3%
06 Vietnam $1.8 billion 3.2%
07 Turkey $1.7 billion 3.1%
08 Italy $1.5 billion 2.7%
09 Brazil $1.4 billion 2.7%
10 Germany $998.9 million 1.8%

China is the country who leads the cotton exporting business around the globe. With 9,596,961 km2 and 1,376,049,000 population china produce a huge amount of cotton that fulfill their domestic Demand and makes more than $15.8 billion USD last year. Come to the second country India which 3,287,263 km2 and 1,293,057,000 of population they produce vast amount of cotton that fill domestic demand and export extra cotton; like china and makes $7.5 billion USD last year. In that situation one thing is clear that; to produce huge amount of cotton you need more lands with adept people to cultivate cotton to makes garments and export it in worldwide.

Complete Dyeing process of cotton

Complete Dyeing process of cotton

Complete Dyeing process of 100% cotton fabric
Cotton is most popular natural fiber around the world. The original way of wet processing is most important. Follow chart is part and parcel in textile industry. This is ideal follow chart for cotton dyeing which is help somebody to know about cotton fabric or yarn dying.

Complete Dyeing process of cotton

Complete Dyeing process of cotton

I’m describing the complete dyeing process of 100% cotton fabric by the following process flowchart:
Fill water

Load fabric

Temperature control 600 C

Inject detergent + Sequestering agent + Anti-creasing agent

Run time 10 minute

Caustic dosing 600C X 10’

Increase temperature at 700C

H2 O2 dosing

Run time 110 0 C X 40’

Cooling at 800 C

Rinse at 60 0C for 7 minute

Water drain

Fill water and inject PKK

Temperature 980 C and run time 10’

Cooling at 800 C

Rinse at 50 0C for 7 minute

Water drain

Fill water

Inject acetic acid at 550 C X 10’ and check p H

Raise temperature at 800 C X 10’ and destroy enzyme activity

Rinse for 5 minutes

Water drain

Fill water

Check p H

Temperature 600 C

Inject leveling + sequestering agent run time 5’

Inject salt 600 C X 20’

Color dosing 60 0C X 33’

Run time 20 minute

Soda ash dosing for 33’

Check sample after 10, 33.…… during shade matching

Rinse at 50 0C for 15’


Fill water

For neutralizing, inject A. acid

Run time 10 minute then rinse for 10 minute


Fill water


A. Acid 55 0C X 10’

Check PH

Inject softener

Run time 500C X 20’



Fill water

Cold wash

Unload from machine

Acknowledgement for reader who is must be textile student or expert on textile technology. If you missed something on this flowchart and if you have any objection about anything please leave a comment on comment box are given blew.

Percentage of impurities in different natural fiber


Percentage of impurities in different natural fiber:

Every natural textile fiber is made with a little bit impurities which are totally unusable. Before use that fiber its need to remove those impurities from the fiber with keeps the useable part that fiber. Various quantities impurities and various types impurities are included in textile natural fiber. Every natural fiber, impurities and quantities are given blew.

Cotton Fiber

Percentage of impurities in Cotton fiber.

Percentage of impurities in Cotton fiber.

Cotton is a uni-cellulose fiber. Cellulose is the use able and main part the cotton fiber. 94% cellulose and 6% impurities are made a natural cotton fiber. The name and the percentage impurities are given blew. It’s could be less or high.

Protein                                     1.3%

Pectin’s                                    1.2%

Oil, Fat, Wax                            0.6%

Mineral Matters                       1.3%

Ash                                          0.5%

Others                                      1.1%


Total Impurities                        06%

Cellulose                                  94%

Total:                                      100%


NB: Cellulose is the main useable element in cotton fiber & the quantity of impurities and cellulose could be less or high.



Jute Fiber

Percentage of impurities in Jute fiber.

Percentage of impurities in Jute fiber.

 Jute fiber is a multi-cellulose fiber and the main useable element is cellulose in this fiber. Generally 65% Cellulose and 35% impurities are including in a jute fiber, It could be less or high. Percentage and the name of impurities in jute are given blew.

Hemicelluloses                         22.2%

Lignin                                       10.8%

                                                    Color pigment, Regions and others       2.0%


Total Impurities                      35%

Cellulose                                 65%

Total:                                      100%


NB: Cellulose is the main useable element in Jute fiber & the quantity of impurities and cellulose could be less or high.

Wool Fiber

Percentage of impurities  in Wool fiber

Percentage of impurities in Wool fiber

Wool is a natural animal fiber. The authentic element of wool is keratin. 61% keratin and 39% impurities are made-up the natural animal wool fiber. The impurities are Wool Wax or grease, Suint, dirt, burrs, minaret meters, water and others. Let’s have a look at percentage. It’s could be less or high.

Wool Wax or grease 11%

Suint                                        8%

Dirt                                          8%

                                                                   Burrs minaret meters,

                                                                   Water and others                   12%


Total Impurities                     39%

Keratin                                    61%

Total:                                       100%

NB: Keratin is the main useable element in Wool fiber & the quantity of impurities and Keratin could be less or high.

Silk Fiber

Percentage of impurities in silk fiber

Percentage of impurities in silk fiber

 Silk is a natural animal fiber which one is produce from silk worm. Sericin is the main impurities in the silk fiber. Fibroin is the main element is the main part of the silk its called pure silk. Percentage of impurities are given blew. It’s could be less or high.

Sericin                                      22%

Wax                                           1.5%

                                                                 Mineral salt, color,

                                                                 Pigment and others                  0.5%


Total Impurities                         24%

Fibroin                                     76%

Total:                                       100%

NB: Fibroin is the main useable element in Silk fiber & the quantity of impurities and fibroin could be less or high.