Terms of fabric Manufacturing and GSM Calculation
Fabric can be made from interlacement, interlooping , intertwining or bonding of two , one or multiple threads or fibers with specified dimensional stability that can be transformed to apparel or Garments. we are gonna discussing about GSM as wall.
There are three major methods of mechanically manipulating yarn into fabrics
- Interlacement or Interwevaing
Interlacement or Interwevaing :-
Two distinct sets of yarns one is called warp yarn and another is called weft yarn are interlaced with each other and produced fabric by loom which is called woven fabric. The lengthwise yarns are called warp and The crosswise yarns are called weft. Weft yarns are also known as filling yarns or threads
A loom is a device for holding the warp yarns in place while the weft yarns are woven through them.
Interlooping consists of forming yarn (one set yarn such as warp or weft) into loops, each of which is only released after a succeeding loop has been formed and intermeshed with it so that a secure ground loop structure is achieved . knit fabric is produced by Interlooping
Intertwining and twisting includes a number of methods such as braiding and knotting where yarns are caused to intertwine with each other at right angles or some other angle
The planner substance which can be made from bonding fibers with specific dimensional stability that can be transformed to apparel
Some terms that you have to know
To produce suitable package from spinners package such as cone, cop, pirn cheese etc. is called Winding
To produce warper beam from suitable package such as cone, cop, pirn cheese etc. is called Warping
The process of applying a protective coating upon the yarn surface so that the yarn will suffer the least damage in weaving
The process of passing the warp yarn through the drop wire/ dropper is called pinning.
The process of passing the warp yarn through the heald eye of heald Frame is called Drawing .
The process of passing the warp yarn through the heald eye of heald Frame for a specific fabric such as twill , plain is called Drafting .
The process of passing the warp yarn through the dent of reed is called Denting .
The tail end of the warp from the exhausted warp beam is tied or knotted to the beginning of the new warp is called Tying-in
By reducing hardness, the package has to be made suitable for dyeing. It is called soft winding.
During winding process a hard package is made from the soft package and then it is converted to a cone form. It is called hard winding.
The relation of grey fabric with yarn, fiber and polymer is known as backward linkage.
The relation of grey fabric with finished fabric and apparel is known as forward linkage
What is GSM ?
It is the metric measurement of the weight of a fabric. The Elaborate form of GSM is grams per square meter and is is also known as (gm/m2). Some clothing items are still marked in Imperial weights OZ or oz/yd2. OZ or oz/yd2 means ounces per yard squared
We can measure GSM by using following steps without GSM Cutter :
- At first cut 5 pieces of fabric ; The length and the width of all fabric pieces should be like 12 cm
- Then measure the weight of all fabric pieces suppose 1.8gm, 2gm, 1.85gm, 1.90gm, 1.95gm
- Then calculate average weight such as
(1.8+2+1.85+1.90+1.95)/5 =1.95 gm
- Calculate the fabric sample area
Length * width = 12 * 12 = 144 cm2
Now apply this formula
GSM = (Weight of the samplein Gram*10000)/Area of Sample in cm2
= ( 1.9*10000)/144
Fabric weight depends on GSM . The higher GSM means the weight of fabric is also higher.
Relation between GSM & OZ :
5.5oz x 33.906 = 186.48gsm
185gsm / 33.906 = 5.45oz
This is very important to understand the variations of fabric weight