Terms of fabric Manufacturing and GSM Calculation

GSM Cutter

Fabric can be made from interlacement, interlooping , intertwining  or bonding of two , one or multiple threads or fibers with specified dimensional stability that can be transformed to apparel or Garments. we are gonna discussing about GSM as wall.

There are three major methods of mechanically manipulating yarn into fabrics

  1. Interlacement or Interwevaing
  2. Interlooping
  3. Intertwining

 

Interlacement or Interwevaing :-

Two distinct  sets of yarns one is called warp yarn and another is called weft yarn  are interlaced with each other and produced fabric by loom which is called woven fabric. The lengthwise yarns are called warp and  The crosswise yarns are called  weft. Weft yarns are also known as filling yarns or threads

A loom is a device for holding the warp yarns in place while the weft yarns are woven through them.

 

 

Interlooping :-

Interlooping consists of forming yarn (one set yarn such as warp or weft) into loops, each of which is only released after a succeeding loop has been formed  and intermeshed with it so that a secure ground loop structure is achieved . knit fabric is produced by Interlooping

 

 

Intertwining :-

Intertwining and twisting includes a number of methods such as braiding and knotting where yarns are caused to intertwine with each other at right angles or some other angle

 

 

Nonwoven

The planner substance which can be made from bonding fibers with specific dimensional stability that can be transformed to apparel

 

Some terms  that you have to know

Winding:

To produce suitable package from spinners package such as cone, cop, pirn cheese etc. is called Winding

Warping:

To produce warper beam from suitable  package such as cone, cop, pirn cheese etc. is called Warping

Sizing:

The process of applying a protective coating upon the yarn surface so that the yarn will suffer the least damage in weaving

Pinning:

The process of passing the warp yarn through the drop wire/ dropper is called pinning.

Drawing:

The process of passing the warp yarn through the heald eye of heald Frame is called Drawing  .

Drafting:

The process of passing the warp yarn through the heald eye of heald Frame for a specific fabric such as twill , plain is called Drafting .

Denting:

The process of passing the warp yarn through the dent of reed is called Denting .

Tying-in/ Knotting:

The tail end of the warp from the exhausted warp beam is tied or knotted to the beginning of the new warp is called Tying-in

Soft Winding:

By reducing hardness, the package has to be made suitable for dyeing. It is called soft winding.

Hard Winding:

During winding process a hard package is made from the soft package and then it is converted to a cone form. It is called hard winding.

Backward Linkage:

The relation of grey fabric with yarn, fiber and polymer is known as backward linkage.

Forward Linkage:

The relation of grey fabric with finished fabric and apparel is known as forward linkage

 

 

What is GSM ?

GSM Cutter

GSM Cutter

It is the metric measurement of the weight of a fabric. The Elaborate form of GSM is grams per square meter and is is also known as (gm/m2). Some clothing items are still marked in Imperial weights OZ or oz/yd2. OZ or oz/yd2 means ounces per yard squared

 

 

 

 

 

We can measure GSM  by using following steps without GSM Cutter :

  • At first cut 5 pieces of fabric ; The length and the width of all fabric pieces should be like 12 cm
  • Then measure the weight of all fabric pieces suppose 1.8gm, 2gm, 1.85gm, 1.90gm, 1.95gm
  • Then calculate average  weight such as

(1.8+2+1.85+1.90+1.95)/5 =1.95 gm

  • Calculate the fabric sample area

Length * width = 12 * 12 = 144 cm2

 

 

Now apply this formula

GSM = (Weight of the samplein Gram*10000)/Area of Sample in cm2

        = ( 1.9*10000)/144

        = 131.94

 

Comments :

 

Fabric weight depends on GSM . The higher GSM means the weight of fabric is also higher.

 

Relation between GSM & OZ :

5.5oz x 33.906 = 186.48gsm

185gsm / 33.906 = 5.45oz

This is very important to understand the variations of fabric weight

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Riad Badhon

Studying BSc In Textile Engineering at National Institute of Textile Engineering and Research

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